Avery, T. E. and H. E. Burkhart. 2002. Forest Measurements, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill, 456 pp. ISBN 0-07-366176-7

Husch, B., T. W. Beers, and J. A. Kershaw, Jr. 2003. Forest Mensuration. Fourth Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey. 443 pp. ISBN 0-471 01850-3

Johnson, P. S., S. R. Shifley, and R. Rogers 2009. The Ecology and Silviculture of Oaks. CABI, 2009. 600 pp. ISBN 184593475X, 9781845934750

Shiver, B. D. and B. E. Borders. 1996. Sampling Techniques for Forest Resources Inventory. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.356 pp. ISBN 0-471-10940-1



Rohlf, F. J. and J. W. Archie. 1978. Least-squares mapping using interpoint distances. Ecology, 59:126-132.

Leaf area

Gholz, H. J., C. C. Grier, A. G. Campbell, and A. T. Brown. 1978. Equations for estimating biomass and leaf area of plants in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Research Lab. Oregon State University , Corvallis , Oregon. Research paper No 41.


Gingrich, S. F. 1967. Measuring and evaluating stocking and stand density in upland hardwood forests in the central states. Forest Sciencei 13:38-53.

Reineke, L. H. 1933. Perfecting a stand density index for even-aged forests. J. Agric. Res. 46:627-638.

Chisman, H. H. and F. X. Schumacher. 1940. On the tree area-ratio and certian of its applications. J. For. 38:311-317.

Krajicek, J. E. K. A. Brinkman and S. F. Gingrich. 1961. Crown Competion: a measure of density. Forest Science 7:36-42.

Curtis, R. O. 1982. A simple index of stand density fro Douglas-fir. Forest Science 28(1):92-94.

Ducey, M. J. 2009. The ratio of additive and traditional stand density indices. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 24(1):5-10.

Zeide, B. 2005. How to measures stand density. Trees(2005)19:1-14.

Long, J. 1985. A Pratical Approach to Density Management. The Forest Chronicle 1985 61(1):23-25.


Cao Q. V. and H. E. Burkhart. 1980. Cubic-foot volume of loblolly pine to any height limit. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry x:166-168.



Natural Resource Biometrics This the Website for my undergraduate Natural Resource Biometrics course. These topics may be helpful background.


Forestry Functions This website provides code for many useful forestry calculations. Each function is provided in Visual Basic, R Code, Python, and Go.

Creative Commons License
Advanced Forest Biometrics by David R. Larsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Author: Dr. David R. Larsen
Created: January 7, 2011
Last Updated: December 31, 2015